CPP Research Center

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The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior™ (FIRO-B®) instrument was created by William Schutz, Ph.D. Schutz developed the FIRO-B theory to aid in the understanding and predicting of how high-performance military teams would work together.

Schutz began with the premise that “people need people,” and used the term interpersonal to indicate any interaction, real or imagined, occurring between people.

The current norm sample for the FIRO-B instrument includes a U.S. national sample of 3,091 individuals who took the assessments in 1997 (Hammer & Schnell, 2000). In examining the internal consistency reliability of each measure for the national sample, results indicate that reliability coefficients for all measures are good, ranging from .85 to .96. Test-retest reliability coefficients also demonstrate good reliability – ranging from .71 to .85 – for three different samples reported in the FIRO-B® Technical Guide (Hammer & Schnell, 2000).

Research results also support the validity of the instrument. A number of studies have shown the FIRO-B assessment to be related to measures of leadership, personal value, and relationships/friendships. Additionally, relationships are also found with assessments such as the MBTI® Form M instrument and the CPI™ instrument (Hammer & Schnell, 2000).

The FIRO-B® Technical Guide provides the FIRO-B practitioner with current information on the theory, construction, interpretation, research, statistical underpinnings, and uses of this widely used instrument. This page contains the research to further support the reliability and validity of the FIRO tools, as well as best practices and industry trends when using applying the assessment results in different settings. You will also find information on ways to pair the instrument with other assessments for maximum effectiveness.

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